GRALE is set of tools to model gravitational lenses and invert gravitational lens systems based on the observed images.


The following articles involve the use of GRALE:

  1. Further support for a trio of mass-to-light deviations in Abell 370: free-form Grale lens inversion using BUFFALO strong lensing data
  2. Free-form Grale lens inversion of galaxy clusters with up to 1000 multiple images
  3. Extended lens reconstructions with Grale: exploiting time domain, substructural and weak-lensing information
  4. Free-form Grale reconstruction of Abell 2744: robustness of uncertainties against changes in lensing data
  5. Multiply-imaged time-varying sources behind galaxy clusters - Comparing FRBs to QSOs, SNe, and GRBs
  6. The role of multiple images and model priors in measuring H0 from supernova Refsdal in galaxy cluster MACS J1149.5+2223
  7. Evidence for the line of sight structure in the largest Hubble Frontier Field cluster, MACSJ0717.5+3745
  8. Model-independent and model-based local lensing properties of CL0024+1654 from multiply-imaged galaxies
  9. Dark matter dynamics in Abell 3827: new data consistent with standard Cold Dark Matter
  10. The Frontier Fields Lens Modeling Comparison Project
  11. Lens Models Under the Microscope: Comparison of Hubble Frontier Field Cluster Magnification Maps
  12. Testing light-traces-mass in Hubble Frontier Fields Cluster MACS-J0416.1-2403
  13. Quantifying substructures in Hubble Frontier Field clusters: comparison with Lambda-CDM simulations
  14. The behaviour of dark matter associated with four bright cluster galaxies in the 10 kpc core of Abell 3827
  15. Lensing time delays as a substructure constraint: a case study with the cluster SDSS J1004+4112
  16. Mass-Galaxy offsets in Abell 3827, 2218 and 1689: intrinsic properties or line-of-sight substructures?
  17. Lensing degeneracies and mass substructure
  18. Strong-Lensing Analysis of MS 1358.4+6245: New Multiple Images and Implications for the Well-Resolved z=4.92 Galaxy
  19. Full Lensing Analysis of Abell 1703: Comparison of Independent Lens-Modelling Techniques
  20. Non-parametric strong lens inversion of SDSS J1004+4112
  21. The search for dark matter via strong lens inversions of galaxy clusters using genetic algorithms
  22. Non-parametric strong lens inversion of Cl 0024+1654: illustrating the monopole degeneracy
  23. A generalisation of the mass-sheet degeneracy producing ring-like artefacts in the lens mass distribution
  24. Non-parametric inversion of gravitational lensing systems with few images using a multi-objective genetic algorithm
  25. A genetic algorithm for the non-parametric inversion of strong lensing systems


The new version consists of a set of core libraries in C++, together with Python bindings to make the use more flexible.

  • Installation instructions, examples and docs can be found here.
  • The code for GRALE2/pygrale can be found at GitHub

The original software is of course also still available. The file formats used should be compatible between the versions, which is very useful as not all software (e.g.the Grale editor) has not been ported to the new version yet.