GRALE is set of tools to model gravitational lenses and invert gravitational lens systems based on the observed images.


The following articles involve the use of GRALE:

  1. The role of images and priors in measuring H0 from supernova Refsdal in galaxy cluster MACS J1149.5+2223
  2. Evidence for the line of sight structure in the largest Hubble Frontier Field cluster, MACSJ0717.5+3745
  3. Model-independent and model-based local lensing properties of CL0024+1654 from multiply-imaged galaxies
  4. Dark matter dynamics in Abell 3827: new data consistent with standard Cold Dark Matter
  5. The Frontier Fields Lens Modeling Comparison Project
  6. Lens Models Under the Microscope: Comparison of Hubble Frontier Field Cluster Magnification Maps
  7. Testing light-traces-mass in Hubble Frontier Fields Cluster MACS-J0416.1-2403
  8. Quantifying substructures in Hubble Frontier Field clusters: comparison with Lambda-CDM simulations
  9. The behaviour of dark matter associated with four bright cluster galaxies in the 10 kpc core of Abell 3827
  10. Lensing time delays as a substructure constraint: a case study with the cluster SDSS J1004+4112
  11. Mass-Galaxy offsets in Abell 3827, 2218 and 1689: intrinsic properties or line-of-sight substructures?
  12. Lensing degeneracies and mass substructure
  13. Strong-Lensing Analysis of MS 1358.4+6245: New Multiple Images and Implications for the Well-Resolved z=4.92 Galaxy
  14. Full Lensing Analysis of Abell 1703: Comparison of Independent Lens-Modelling Techniques
  15. Non-parametric strong lens inversion of SDSS J1004+4112
  16. The search for dark matter via strong lens inversions of galaxy clusters using genetic algorithms
  17. Non-parametric strong lens inversion of Cl 0024+1654: illustrating the monopole degeneracy
  18. A generalisation of the mass-sheet degeneracy producing ring-like artefacts in the lens mass distribution
  19. Non-parametric inversion of gravitational lensing systems with few images using a multi-objective genetic algorithm
  20. A genetic algorithm for the non-parametric inversion of strong lensing systems


The new version consists of a set of core libraries in C++, together with Python bindings to make the use more flexible.

  • Installation instructions, examples and docs can be found here.
  • The code for GRALE2/pygrale can be found at GitHub

The original software is of course also still available. The file formats used should be compatible between the versions, which is very useful as not all software (e.g.the Grale editor) has not been ported to the new version yet.